M. I. Sakhatsky, doctor of agricultural Sciences, Professor, academician of UAAS, national University of bioresources and nature management of Ukraine, G. I. Sakhatsky, candidate of agricultural Sciences, associate Professor, southern branch “Crimean agrotechnological University” Nubip of Ukraine
The egg production of ducks, the yield of incubation eggs, their fertilization and hatchability are very important indicators that affect the efficiency of the breeding enterprise. As for the hatchability of eggs, the parameters of this indicator are influenced by several factors, including the purity of their shells. Ensuring the production of clean-shelled eggs is not an easy task because ducks begin to lay them before dawn, that is, very early, before the lights are turned on in the poultry house and, as a rule, not in the nests, but simply on the litter. So, if eggs chickens that Spain to collect in first half days through every 2-3 hours, then ducks-as can be before, i.e. in the early days with a repeat of through every hour .
With untimely collection of eggs increases the likelihood of contamination by droppings, microorganisms and microscopic fungi. Microorganisms and fungi that are on the shell, can get through the pores inside the egg. Inside the contaminated eggs, researchers found more than 30 species of microbes and 7 species of fungi. As for mold fungi, they are known to multiply by spores. Spores that are on the shell, germinate and thin threads of its hyphae through the pores penetrate into the egg. After damage to the membrane, the molds continue to multiply, get into the protein and create colonies in it in the form of greenish and blue spots. In the future, mold can damage the entire contents of the egg. Such eggs are called “cuffs”. They differ from other, intact eggs, the bluish coloration of the shell and an unpleasant rotten smell. Under the pressure of gases formed inside the cuffs in the process of their further spoilage, they can explode and infect their contents with other eggs, which are incubated with them in the incubator. As for the microbes trapped through the pores inside the egg, they become difficult to reach for disinfectants. In the egg while they are in unworkable condition. However, with the aging of the egg (in the case of its storage and incubation), the antimicrobial action of lysozyme protein is known and microbes begin to multiply. Microbial waste products poison and cause the death of embryos .
For neutralization of microbes and fungi that have fallen on the eggshell from the litter or from the air of the poultry house, they are used 2-3-time disinfection. The first disinfection of the eggs must take place immediately after the cleaning descaler of the house; the second in eisenhowers, after sorting and before transfer to storage (for accumulation of a batch of certain size); the third directly before placing in the incubator . As a rule, incubation eggs are not washed before disinfection. So, immersing them in a solution, even with an antiseptic, accelerates the ingress of microbes through the pores of the shell into the egg, followed by infection of the embryo . However, in other experiments proved greater efficiency wet disinfection eggs, than in gas .
In our time, there are many disinfectants that are used to disinfect poultry houses, equipment, inventory, incubation eggs and the like. These include sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), formaldehyde (formalin), hypochloride (calcium and sodium), glutaric aldehyde and its compounds, sodium carbonate (lime), hydrochloric acid, synthetic phenols (Stroke Enviran, Tektrol, Prophyl, D39, Finosept), Quaternary ammonium compounds (Roccal-D, Vetrequat Mikro-Quat, fulsan, aquasan), iodoform (iodine, phoraid, weladol, biocid), guanidine compounds (chlorhexidine – Nolvasan, Hibiscrub, Hibitane, Savlon) Cresols (Lysol), Chlo compounds (chloramine T, Halamid sodium dichloroisocyanurate), peroxide compounds (VirkonS) and some others [2,7,13,17]. Unsurpassed among them in terms of efficiency of application for disinfection of incubation eggs is formalin [10,18] which is also used for disinfection of incubators, incubators and other incubation equipment, premises for keeping poultry, etc. [4,17]. Formalin (Solutio Formalde hydi) is a clear liquid, without color, has a peculiar pungent smell. During storage, turbidity due to precipitation of white (paraformaldehyde). In sale comes in the form of an aqueous solution containing 37-40% formaldehyde and no more than 1% methyl alcohol (stabilizer). That is, formalin is a source of formaldehyde, a disinfectant and deodorant. Formaldehyde (formaldehyde, methanal) is a colorless gas with a pungent odor formed during the evaporation of formalin .
However, despite the high efficiency, formalin is not a promising disinfectant because of its harmfulness to people (strong inflammatory and carcinogenic effect, toxicity, possible ability to cause asthma, etc.). It is prohibited to use in poultry farming in most EU countries. Therefore, in our time, the process of searching for or creating new, less dangerous to human health desinfectants, which in terms of effectiveness of action on microorganisms would not be inferior to formalin [1,7,13,17], continues. It is to such requirements, as proved in our studies on eggs of hens of egg crosses , that iodesol corresponds. To determine the possibility of its use for disinfection of duck eggs, these studies were carried out.
The experiments were carried out in a duck farm of the southern branch of the “Crimean agrotechnological University” Nubip Ukraine, located in the village of Sunny Simferopol district of Crimea. The experiments used incubation eggs obtained from ducks of the parent herd of the cross “Blagovarsky” (completed with plemptahozavodu “Korobovsky” Cherkasy region).
Ducks were kept according to the current rules  and norms . The density of their planting was not more than 2.5 heads per 1 m2 of floor space. The sex ratio between Kachur and ducks was 1:4. The bird had free access to feeders and drinkers. The feeding front was at least 10 cm / head., watering – not less than 3.0 cm / head. Dry type of feeding of ducks with use of full-scale compound feeds  which corresponded to requirements DSTU4120-2002  was applied. Water corresponding to the requirements of GOST2874-82 , the bird was provided around the clock.
total, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the possibility of using iodesol for one – time disinfection of eggs was determined, and in the second-for double disinfection. In the experiments used jodisol production PE “Kronos agro” (Gostomel, Kyiv region).
According to the certificate of quality and instructions for use , iodezol (iodotrietilenglikol) is a disinfectant designed for aerosol treatment of premises in the presence of animals. It is a homogeneous thick red-brown liquid with a faint smell of iodine. It consists of iodine, triethylene glycol and activating additives. Dissolves in water, forming a red-brown solution. It has an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect on gram-negative and gram-positive microflora and viruses (infectious agents of laryngotracheitis, infectious bronchitis, avian influenza and the like). In the aerosol state, it disinfects the air and sanitizes the respiratory tract of animals, including birds. For aerosol treatment, a 50% aqueous solution is used. The air temperature when working with iodesol and its solutions should be in the range from 16°C to 30°C.
During the first experiment, the incubation eggs collected during the day after sorting and disinfection with formalin in the poultry house in accordance with the established rules  were divided by random sampling into 2 halves, that is, into two groups and stored in the egg storage until the accumulation of a certain batch of eggs. For this purpose, the incubation eggs collected each day were also sorted, disinfected, divided into 2 halves and added to those stored in the egg storage. The period of storage of eggs in the egg storage was normative , no more than 5 days. That is, in each group when laying for incubation was the same number of eggs, which were stored 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 day. Eggs of the 1st group (control) before laying for incubation was disinfected with formalin, and the 2nd group-iodinolum. Thus, disinfection of eggs of the control group was carried out with formalin twice, and the experimental group-once with formalin and once with iodesol. Aerosol disinfection of eggs with iodesol was carried out in a gas chamber designed for the use of formalin. 1.4-1.5 ml of 50% working solution of iodesol was spent on 1 m3 of the de-chamber volume. For its preparation, the concentrate was diluted with tap water in a ratio of 1:1.
An aerosol generator was used to spray the disinfectant. The duration of the exhibition was 30 minutes. The disinfected eggs of groups 1 and 2 were incubated by the conventional method [8,12] using biological control over the embryo growth  and the fertilization of eggs, the number of frozen embryos and suffocations, the number of bred ducklings were taken into account. In the second experiment, we studied the effectiveness of the use of iodesol for two-time disinfection of eggs, namely before their storage and before incubation. For their implementation, the daily volume of collected incubation eggs was divided into 2 halves, that is, into 2 groups, of which one (control) was treated with formalin, and the second(experimental) – with iodesol. The eggs were stored for 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 days in the same conditions, in one egg storage, except for the normative conditions , that is, at a temperature of 10-15°C, relative humidity of 75-80% and with a rotation of 90° every hour, once again disinfected with appropriate disinfectants and incubated in incubators IUP-f-45.
Table 1 shows the results of the first experiment. They indicate that in terms of output of ducklings and hatchability of eggs, iodesol was not inferior to formalin, although there were some differences between these disinfectants in individual batches. The combined data also show the positive impact of the use jadesola. Thus, its use according to the scheme: the 1st time in the poultry house with formalin and the 2nd time with iodesol before incubation) helps to reduce the death of embryos during incubation (frozen by 0.1 % and suffocated by 1.2 %) compared with the control (the use of formalin for disinfection in the poultry house and before incubation). Due to this, the hatchability of eggs in the case of iodezolu was 77.4%, that is, it was significantly (PX,99) higher than in the control (76.1%). It is interesting that in similar experiments carried out by us on incubation eggs of hens of egg crosses , iodesol for efficiency only approached formalin. The advantage will jadesola over formaldehyde in disinfection of eggs of ducks has a logical justification. So, when keeping chickens … the shells of laid eggs are not contaminated with droppings. On the shell of such eggs, only microflora from the air of the poultry house accumulates, which is neutralized by formalin during their gas disinfection. Ducks of the parent herd are kept on the floor, usually on a deep invariable litter, which almost always has increased humidity. In addition, most ducks of the herd, as already mentioned above, lay their eggs not in the nests intended for this purpose, but on the litter, which leads to contamination of the shell with droppings, microflora of the litter and the like. Gas disinfection with formalin shell of these eggs is less efficient than aerosol iodinolum. So, when using iodezol (the main working substance is iodine), its micro-droplets cover the egg shells. Iodine has well-known high antimicrobial properties not only sudden action, but also for a certain time. These properties are enhanced by triethylene glycol, which is part of iodesol and promotes better adhesion of iodine to any surface, including egg shells. That’s why jadesola advantage over formalin is clearly manifested in disinfection of eggs of ducks. Table 2 and figure 1 show the results of incubation of duck eggs, which were stored for a certain time in the egg storage after disinfection with iodesol and formalin. In the case of storage of eggs during the regulatory period (up to 5 days) after the use of formalin, their hatchability was 77.4%, when using iodesol-76.8% (the difference is 0.6% and is incredible). In the case of the use of formalin, the storage of eggs for more than 5 days resulted in a decrease in their hatchability. Thus, if the storage of eggs for 6 days can only talk about the tendency to reduce their hatchability (up to 74.2%, or 3.2 % compared to the control), then when the period is extended to 7 days, this trend turns into a likely difference (decrease to 69.7% or 7.7% at P>0.95). Storage of eggs for 8 and 9 days causes a further decrease in their hatchability, namely to 67.2-65.5% (10.2-11.9% in comparison with control). That is, our studies have confirmed the validity of the regulatory requirement for the maximum shelf life of duck eggs in egg storage no more than 5 days and in the case of double pre-incubation disinfection with formalin. At the same time, when using iodesol for double disinfection of duck eggs, there was a different picture of the dependence of their hatchability on the duration of storage. In particular, when storing eggs for 6-7 days, their hatchability varied within 76.9-77.4%, that is, it was not inferior to control (76.8%). With an increase in the shelf life of eggs up to 8 days, their hatchability decreased to 74.6% (2.2%), with an increase up to 9 days-decreased to 72.0% (4.8% compared to the control at P>0.95). An interesting comparison is the hatchability of eggs, which were stored for 9 days when used for their double disinfection with formalin and iodesol. The difference, as can be seen from the data, is 6.5% (65.5% and 72.0%, respectively). Thus, the results of the studies given in table 2 and figure 1 indicate the possibility of increasing by 2 days the normative shelf life of duck eggs in egg shelters in the case of double disinfection with iodesol. That is, in the case of using iodesol for pre-incubation disinfection of duck eggs, the term of their guaranteed storage in egg storage can be 7 days.
Another significant advantage jadesola on formalin lies in the simplicity of its application. Thus, disinfection of eggs with formalin is allowed only in special gas chambers that meet safety requirements (must be sealed and equipped with ventilation to release the disinfectant outside the poultry house after disinfection is completed). Therefore, these cameras are usually equipped with poultry houses only in large specialized farms for breeding ducks. In small specialized, in farms and in homesteads gas chambers poultry houses do not suit and therefore incubation eggs right after collecting do not disinfect. This leads to a large loss of eggs during their incubation through an excessive number of frozen embryos and suffocations. But in the case of the gas chambers in the house large specialized farms, disinfection of eggs is carried out with formalin immediately after collection (to be collected every hour during the first half of the day), and only after its completion, that is, before shipment of eggs to hatchery or ayasheva. During this time, from the laying of the egg to its first disinfection, it actually takes several hours. Application jadesola allows to eliminate these drawbacks. In this case, it is not necessary to accumulate a certain number of eggs to fill the disinfection chamber, there is no need for a special chamber. Spraying iodesol can be carried out with the help of any device, including household, in the fenced-off part of the vestibule of the poultry house, in a box and the like. The cost of disinfecting eggs is also important. When using formalin costs 50 kopecks. for disinfection of 1 thousand eggs, and iodesol – 15 kopecks., that is 3 times less.
1. Jodisol was more effective than formalin preincubation means for disinfection of eggs of ducks.
2. When disinfecting duck eggs according to the scheme: the 1st time in the poultry house with formalin and the 2nd time before incubation with iodesol, their hatchability was 77.4% and was higher than in the variant of 2-time (in the poultry house and before incubation) use of formalin (76.1 %).
3. The use of iodesol for disinfection of hatching eggs of ducks before storage in the egg with subsequent re-disinfection before incubation, ensures their high hatchability even after storage in the egg for 7 days, that is, 2 days longer than when using formalin.